When engineers make the decision to drill a well, they utilize a series of investigative steps to determine if the well will produce or need abandonment. Upon reaching a decision, the next action step that encourages production is well completion. Here, we look at what goes into well completion and the steps you need to know about.
Step 1: Spud the Well
Spudding the well is the first official step in well completion projects. Spudding is the process of using a large drill bit to create a surface hole before the casing and cementing phases take place. This initial spudding with the large bit creates a defined entryway for the primary bit to enter the well. When the primary bit enters the well, this process is known as spudding in.
Step 2: Casing
Drilling is the technical first step in well completion, but casing will kickstart the process and initiate production of the wellbore. There are two options for casing, both of which depend on the firmness of a bore. The first option uses a solid steel pipe that may remain in place throughout the duration of the well’s life, while the second option consists of a wire screen lining that can block the infiltration of sand. Once a casing is in place, the cementing process can begin.
Step 3: Cementing
Cementing is essential in serving as a placeholder for the casing. With a forceful pump of cement, the existing filling and fluids cycle out of the wellbore, and the cement adheres to the casing and the well’s empty sides. Over time, the cement will harden around the casing and seal out the non-hydrocarbon matter.
Step 4: Perforating
Perforation provides the wellbore with entryways for the hydrocarbon matter to access the water. Engineers will use a specified perforation device to shoot bullets through the casing, effectively puncturing the case and sides of the well.
A series of tools may be sent through the wellbore to assist in perforation processes. Commonly, a slackline or wireline serves these efforts best.
Step 5: Production Tree
A production tree is the final step in the initial well completion process. Engineers add wellheads to the well’s surface to serve as the control function for the well and the interior of the well. All well types receive the production tree upon completion, but an onshore well can have both wet and dry production trees.
After looking at how well completion works and the steps involved, it’s vital to understand that completion of these steps requires a series of tools designed for the job. Durable setting tools will provide the level of quality necessary for a wellbore. Partner with Silver Fox to equip operators with wireline set retrievable bridge plugs and more for their next well completion job.